I found this bit of info on a stamp-collecting blog and have given the name of the person who posted it first at the bottom of this. I thought this a clever way to do the kings of England, which also were the kings of Scotland and Ireland at one time. By putting it on my blog, I can keep the information to use when I write my next historical novel, Saratoga Winter: 1865. This was a good resource for me.........all in one place.
Prince William2 (1982– )
The first child of the Prince and Princess of Wales. He is sometimes called Wills in the press.
William I (also William the Conqueror) (c. 1027–87)
The king of England from 1066 to 1087. He was the Duke of Normandy, in northern France, when the English king Edward the Confessor died, and claimed that Edward had promised him the right to be the next king of England. He invaded England and defeated King Harold II at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. Later that year he became king. He gave power and land in England to other Normans, and built many castles to control the English people.
William II (also William Rufus) (c. 1056–1100)
The king of England from 1087 to 1100. He became king when his father William I died. He was a skilful leader but his attempts to take money from his barons and the Church made him unpopular. He died in an accident while hunting, but many people think he was murdered so that his brother Henry I could be king. He was called Rufus, meaning red, because of the colour of his hair.
William III (also William of Orange) (1650–1702)
The king of Great Britain and Ireland from 1688 to 1702. He was a Dutch prince, married to Mary, the daughter of James II. They were invited by British Protestants to be the king and queen of Britain in order to prevent the Roman Catholic James II from being king. William became king in the Bloodless Revolution and defeated the forces of James II in Ireland at the Battle of the Boyne. He is remembered by a group of Protestants in Northern Ireland who are opposed to Ireland becoming one republic, and call themselves Orangemen. See also William and Mary.
William IV (1765–1837)
The king of Great Britain and Ireland from 1830 to 1837. He was the son of George III and spent many years in the Royal Navy. He is also remembered for having had ten illegitimate children (= ones born outside marriage) with a female actor. His most important action was to create 50 new Whig (1) peers to vote for the Reform Act against the Tories in Parliament who were opposed to it.
Edward the Confessor (c. 1003–66)
The king of England from 1042 to 1066, a son of Ethelred the Unready. He was considered a very holy man, and in 1161 the Pope made him a saint and gave him the title of ‘Confessor’. However, he does not seem to have been very interested in government, and there was great confusion when he died over who had been promised the throne of England. His brother-in-law Harold Godwin became king, but was soon removed by William of Normandy in the Norman Conquest of 1066.
Prince Henry5 (1984– )
The second child of the Prince and Princess of Wales. He is usually called Prince Harry by the British press and public.
Henry I (1068–1135) king of England (1100–35).
The youngest of three sons of William I, he became king when his eldest brother William II died, because his other brother Robert was away on a Crusade. Henry improved the administrative system of the country and established a system by which judges travelled around the country giving justice.
Henry II (1133–89) king of England (1154–89).
He was the grandson of Henry I, succeeded King Stephen, and was the first Plantagenet king. He reduced the power of the barons and increased the power of the state. He wanted to reduce the power of the Church, which led to his dispute with the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, which ended in Becket’s murder. During his rule England established control over Ireland. Henry also introduced various systems of justice which can be seen as the beginning of common law.
Henry III (1207–72) king of England (1216–72)
and the son of King John. He was not popular with the barons, who disliked his use of foreign people to advise him and criticized him for poor judgement in financial matters. In 1264, Simon de Mont fort led a rebellion of the barons and Henry was defeated and put in prison. He took back power in 1265 after a battle in which the rebels were defeated by an army led by Henry’s son (later Edward I).
Henry IV (1366–1413) king of England (1399–1413)
after his cousin Richard II. He was born Henry Bolingbrook, the son of John of Gaunt, and was a leading opponent of Richard’s. In 1398 Richard sent him into exile, but in 1399 he returned to England, defeated Richard and was accepted as king by Parliament. While he was king there were rebellions against him in Wales and the north of England. He was forced to accept the principle that the king should govern through Parliament, and in 1407 Parliament took control of the country’s financial affairs.
Henry IV, Parts 1 and 2 two plays (c. 1597–8) by Shakespeare based on the period when Henry IV was king of England. The play’s main characters are Prince Hal (Henry IV’s son and later Henry V) and his friend Falstaff. In Part 1 Hal drinks and jokes with Falstaff and others in the Boar’s Head, a London tavern (= old pub), and his father worries that he is not serious enough to become a king. However, at the end he accepts his responsibilities and fights in a battle to defeat a rebellion against his father. In Part 2, Hal is still friendly with Falstaff, but when Henry IV dies and Hal becomes king, he rejects him with the famous line: ‘I know thee not, old man’.
Henry V (1387–1422) king of England (1413–22) and son of Henry IV. He is regarded as a symbol of English patriotism (= love of one’s own country), especially because of Shakespeare’s play Henry V. He took an English army to France during the Hundred Years War and defeated the French at the Battle of Agincourt (1415), putting an area of France under English control.
Henry V a play (1599) by Shakespeare which celebrates the military victories in France of King Henry V. It contains several famous patriotic speeches, including the famous speech before the battle. There have been two film versions, the first in 1944, directed by Laurence Olivier with himself as Henry, and the second in 1989, directed by Kenneth Branagh who also played the title role.
Henry VI (1421–71) king of England (1422–61 and 1470–1) and son of Henry V. He was not popular, mainly because England finally lost the Hundred Years War while he was king. Opposition to him led to the Wars of the Roses, in which the House of Lancaster was defeated by the House of York and Henry was put in prison. As a result of this, Edward became king, but in 1470, with the help of the powerful Earl of Warwick, known as Warwick the Kingmaker, Henry became king again, but he was defeated once more in 1471. He was put in the Tower of London, where he was murdered, and Edward became king again. Henry established Eton College and King’s College, Cambridge.
Henry VI, Parts 1, 2 and 3 three plays (c. 1590–92) by Shakespeare, set during the period of the Wars of the Roses. They are among Shakespeare’s earliest plays and some people believe that he may only have written parts of them.
Henry VII (1457–1509) king of England (1485–1509),
the first Tudor (1) king. Born Henry Tudor, he was brought up in France. In 1485 he led a rebellion against Richard III, defeated him at the Battle of Bosworth Field and became king. In 1486 he married the daughter of Edward, uniting the House of Lancaster (to which he belonged) and the House of York and so bringing the Wars of the Roses to an end. Although there were rebellions during his rule, including those led by Lambert Simnel and Perkin War beck, Henry established greater order in the country, introduced a more modern system of government and greatly improved the country’s financial position.
Henry VIII (1491–1547) king of England (1509–47)
and son of Henry VII. He is one of the most famous of all English kings, partly because he had six wives. For political reasons, he married Catherine of Aragon, the wife of his dead brother Arthur, just after he became king. They had a daughter, later Mary I, but because they did not have a son who could be the future king, Henry decided to divorce her. The Pope refused to give the necessary permission for this, so Henry removed England from the Catholic Church led by the Pope and made himself head of the Church in England. This act, together with others such as the Dissolution of the Monasteries, was the beginning of the establishment of Protestantism in England. Henry divorced Catherine of Aragon and married Anne Boleyn in 1533. They had a daughter, later Elizabeth I, but Henry had Anne executed for adultery. His third wife was Jane Seymour, who died giving birth to a son (later Edward VI). Henry married his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves, for political reasons, but soon divorced her and in 1540 he married Catherine Howard. She too was executed for adultery. Henry’s sixth and last wife was Catherine Parr. As a young man Henry was known for his love of hunting, sport and music, but he did not rule well and the country was in a weak and uncertain state when he died. See also Cromwell. See also Green sleeves. See also More, Wolsey.
Henry VIII a play (1613) by Shakespeare, possibly the last he wrote. Some people believe he wrote it with somebody else, perhaps John Fletcher. It is about events surrounding King Henry VIII’s divorce from Catherine of Aragon.
George I (1660–1727) king of Great Britain and Ireland (1714–27). He was the first of the Hanoverian kings and came to Britain from Germany on the death of Queen Anne. He was not popular in Britain, mainly because he did not learn to speak English, and because he arrived with two German lovers who were not liked by the British people. He did not get involved in British politics, leaving most decisions to the Cabinet, which became much more important during his time as king.
George II (1683–1760) king of Great Britain and Ireland (1727–60).
He was the only son of George I and, like his father, was not very interested in the government of Britain, allowing the development of the constitutional monarchy. He was, however, interested in the army, and fought against the French in the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–8). He was the last British king to lead his army into a battle.
George III (1738–1820) king of Great Britain and Ireland (1760–1820).
He was the grandson of King George II. He was very interested in the government of Britain, and worked closely with prime ministers such as Lord North and William Pitt. He was strongly opposed to American independence, and was blamed by the public for losing the war of the American Revolution. He suffered from illness for some periods of his life and in 1811 he became so ill that his son was made Prince Regent.
George IV (1762–1830) king of Great Britain and Ireland (1820–30). Before becoming king, he ruled as Prince Regent because his father George III was ill. He had many lovers and shocked many people by the way he lived, spending a lot of time eating, drinking and gambling.
George V (1865–1936) king of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1910–36). He was the son of Edward VII. He became popular with the British people for supporting the British armed forces in World War I. In 1917 he dropped all his German titles and changed the family name from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to Windsor1 (2).
George VI (1895–1952) king of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1936–52).
He was the second son of George V and became king after the abdication of his brother Edward VIII. He was greatly admired by the British people during World War II for staying in London when it was being bombed. He was the last British king to be called ‘emperor’ and the first head of the Commonwealth of Nations.
Prince Edward (1964– )
Earl of Wessex, the fourth child of Queen Elizabeth II. He was educated at Gordonstoun in Scotland and at Cambridge University, where he studied history. He joined the Royal Marines in 1986, but left the next year to begin a career producing plays for the theatre and films for television. In 1999 he married Sophie Rhys-Jones. Their daughter, Lady Louise Windsor, was born in 2003.
Edward I (1239–1307)The king of England from 1272 to 1307, the oldest son of Henry III. He spent a lot of time trying to control Wales and Scotland, fighting, among others, William Wallace and Robert the Bruce. As a result he was called the ‘Hammer of the Scots’. In 1296 he brought the Stone of Scone to England.
Edward II (1284–1327)
The king of England from 1307 to 1327, the son of Edward I and the first Prince of Wales. He took his armies to Scotland, but was defeated at the Battle of Bannock burn (1314) by Robert the Bruce. He was a weak king who upset the English barons, and in 1327 his son Edward III replaced him. Later that year he was murdered.
Edward III (1312–77)The king of England from 1327 to 1377, the son of Edward II. He had continuing problems with the Scots, but he had some success in his attempts to become the king of France, for example at the battles of Crécy (1346) and Poitiers (1355). After his death his grandson became the king of England as Richard II, because his son Edward, the Black Prince, had died the year before. See also Hundred Years War.
Edward IV (1442–83)The king of England from 1461 to 1470 and from 1471 to 1483. He was the son of Richard, Duke of York3 (3). In 1461 his army defeated the soldiers of Henry VI of the House of Lancaster. Edward had the support of the powerful Earl of Warwick, known as Warwick the Kingmaker, to whom he was related, but in 1470 he lost this support and also for a short time his throne (to Henry VI). After the defeat of Warwick and Henry in 1471, England had a period of great stability under Edward, who encouraged the development of art, music, etc. as well as the new science of printing. See also Wars of the Roses.
Edward V (1470–83)
The king of England for three months in 1483, a son of Edward IV. It is generally believed that his uncle, who took the throne by force to become King Richard III, murdered Edward V and his younger brother. See also Princes in the Tower.
Edward VI (1537–53)
The king of England from 1547 to 1553. He was the son of King Henry VIII and his third wife Jane Seymour, and the half-brother (= brother by a different mother) of Mary I and Elizabeth I. He became king at the age of ten, so other people, called regents governed on his behalf. One of them persuaded him to change his will, giving the throne to Lady Jane Grey, but the plan failed and Mary became queen when Edward died. During this period, with Edward’s support, England became much more strongly Protestant, so that Mary was unable to change it back to Catholicism.
Edward VII (1841–1910)The king of Great Britain and Ireland from 1901 to 1910, the son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. He was the Prince of Wales for most of his life, while his mother ruled. Victoria did not let him play much part in state affairs, so he spent most of his time at social events, such as parties, horse racing, etc. When she died in 1901, he became a popular king. His reign was a period of peace and economic success before World War I.
Edward VIII (1894–1972)The eldest son of King George V. He became the king of Great Britain and Ireland when his father died in January 1936, but never had the crown officially placed on his head. He had fallen in love with Mrs. Simpson, an American who was divorced, and it was not acceptable at that time that he should marry her and remain king. So in December 1936, he abdicated (= gave up his position as king) and his brother became King George VI, giving Edward the title of Duke of Windsor. Edward married Mrs. Simpson in June 1937, and they lived in France for many years. See also abdication crisis.
George I (1660–1727)
King of Great Britain and Ireland (1714–27). He was the first of the Hanoverian kings and came to Britain from Germany on the death of Queen Anne. He was not popular in Britain, mainly because he did not learn to speak English, and because he arrived with two German lovers who were not liked by the British people. He did not get involved in British politics, leaving most decisions to the Cabinet, which became much more important during his time as king.
George II (1683–1760)
King of Great Britain and Ireland (1727–60). He was the only son of George I and, like his father, was not very interested in the government of Britain, allowing the development of the constitutional monarchy. He was, however, interested in the army, and fought against the French in the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–8). He was the last British king to lead his army into a battle.
George III (1738–1820)
King of Great Britain and Ireland (1760–1820). He was the grandson of King George II. He was very interested in the government of Britain, and worked closely with prime ministers such as Lord North and William Pitt. He was strongly opposed to American independence, and was blamed by the public for losing the war of the American Revolution. He suffered from illness for some periods of his life and in 1811 he became so ill that his son was made Prince Regent.
George IV (1762–1830)
King of Great Britain and Ireland (1820–30). Before becoming king, he ruled as Prince Regent because his father George III was ill. He had many lovers and shocked many people by the way he lived, spending a lot of time eating, drinking and gambling.
George V (1865–1936)
King of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1910–36). He was the son of Edward VII. He became popular with the British people for supporting the British armed forces in World War I. In 1917 he dropped all his German titles and changed the family name from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to Windsor1 (2).
George VI (1895–1952)
King of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1936–52). He was the second son of George V and became king after the abdication of his brother Edward VIII. He was greatly admired by the British people during World War II for staying in London when it was being bombed. He was the last British king to be called ‘emperor’ and the first head of the Commonwealth of Nations.
Queen Victoria2 (1819–1901)A British queen who ruled from 1837 to 1901. She was the granddaughter of King George III and became queen after the death of King William IV. Her rule was the longest of any British king or queen, and happened at the same time as Britain’s greatest period of world power and industrial development. In 1840 she married her cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. They had nine children. After Albert’s death Victoria took no further part in public affairs, but was persuaded to return by her Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, who gained for her the title Empress of India. She is often remembered as a bad-tempered old woman who once said, ‘We are not amused.’ However in her early life she was a happy and enthusiastic queen who was very popular with ordinary people.
Prince Albert (1819–61)
The husband (and also cousin) of Queen Victoria. The son of a German duke, Albert married Victoria in 1840, and in 1857 he was given the title of Prince Consort. He took great interest in the arts, as well as business, science and technology, and was a strong influence behind the Great Exhibition of 1851. Albert died suddenly when he was only 42, and the Queen wore black clothes for the next 40 years as a sign of her great sadness.
Elizabeth I (1533–1603)The queen of England and Ireland from 1558, after the death of her sister Mary I. She is regarded as one of England’s greatest rulers. The daughter of King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, Elizabeth was an extremely strong and clever woman who controlled the difficult political and religious situation of the time with great skill. She once said to her soldiers before a battle, ‘I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a King, and of a King of England, too.’ During her reign the country’s economy grew very strong, the arts were very active, and England became firmly Protestant and confident in world affairs. However, Elizabeth is often seen as a very lonely figure and is known as the ‘Virgin Queen’ because she never married, although she is known to have had a relationship with the Earl of Leicester and, late in life, the Earl of Essex. See also Armada, Mary Queen of Scots.
Elizabeth II (1926– )
The queen of the United Kingdom since 1952. She is the daughter of King George VI and his wife Queen Elizabeth. She had one sister, Princess Margaret. In 1947 she married Prince Philip of Greece, who had just been made the Duke of Edinburgh, in Westminster Abbey. Her father died in 1952 and Elizabeth was crowned on 2 June 1953. She is a highly respected and much loved monarch with a great interest in the Commonwealth. The Queen and Prince Philip have four children, Charles, Anne, Andrew, and Edward.
ò note at Royal Family Of the period of the British kings George I, II and III, most of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century. British architecture, furniture and silver of this period are considered particularly attractive. Many British towns and cities have areas of simple but elegant Georgian houses. Some people also refer to the time of George IV as Georgian, while others call it Regency: a four-storey Georgian house.
Diana, Princess of Wales (also Princess Diana) (1961–1997)
The former wife of Prince Charles and the mother of Prince William and Prince Henry (Harry). Her name before she married was Lady Diana Spencer. The Spencer families are descended from the English kings Charles II and James II, and Diana’s father was the 8th Earl Spencer. She was married to Prince Charles in 1981 and soon became the most popular member of the royal family, often referred to informally as Di. However, the marriage failed and in 1992 the prince and princess separated. Although Princess Diana gave up her public duties and was divorced in 1996, she continued some of her work with charities and she remained an object of intense interest to the press and the public. She died in a car accident in Paris while trying to escape from photographers, and her funeral, like her wedding, was watched by almost a fifth of the world’s population.
Alfred the Great (849–99)King of Wessex (871–99). He is remembered for defending England against Danish attacks, for establishing the English navy, and for encouraging education and the use of the English language. There is a popular story of King Alfred and the cakes. After a battle he was hiding in a woman’s house. Not knowing who he was, she told him to look after her cakes which were cooking by the fire, and then became very angry when he let them burn.
Posted by SADANAND R. MEHARWADE at 7:13:00 PM